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Faq

Q : I left my LLB studies 19 years ago. Can I now continue where I left off at NMU?

Ans :

Unfortunately, no.

Typically, all Universities will have a cut-off period within which you have to complete your degree, else you have to start fresh.

For LLB programs, the cut-off period will be the length of the course + 2 years or 3 years. (Assuming that you discontinued sometime in the 3rd year.)

In any case, 19 years is too long a period and there is no possibility for a lateral entry.

Given that there is currently no upper age limit for taking up LLB courses in India, you can enroll in any decent college nearest to you for

  • a 3 year LLB course (If you have completed your Bachelor’s degree in any field)
  • or a 5 year LLB course (If you do not have a Bachelors.)

But before investing your time and energy into an LLB course, do evaluate your reasons for taking it up.

Law is a great profession; but apart from completing your LLB, you will also have to invest time and energy in building practical experience, establishing a practice and gaining credibility + clients.

Q : What percentage is required for an LLB after graduation?

Ans :

Depends . . .

There are two factors at play here.

  1. The minimum eligibility percentage stipulated by the Bar Council of India
  2. The minimum eligibility percentage that may be stipulated by the College / University (Which can be more than the BCI %)

The Bar Council of India rules state that :

“Bar Council of India may from time to time, stipulate the minimum percentage of marks not below 45% of the total marks in case of general category applicants and 40% of the total marks in case of SC and ST applicants, to be obtained for the qualifying examination, such as +2 Examination in case of Integrated Five Years’ course or Degree course in any discipline for Three years’ LL.B. course, for the purpose of applying for and getting admitted into a Law Degree Program of any recognized University in either of the streams.

Provided that such a minimum qualifying marks shall not automatically entitle a person to get admission into an institution but only shall entitle the person concerned to fulfill other institutional criteria notified by the institution concerned or by the government concerned from time to time to apply for admission.”

As mentioned in the second paragraph of the quote above, institutions can set their own criteria, which can be higher than the BCI numbers.

Most colleges just stick to the eligibility criteria as mentioned by the BCI.

However, if a college is very popular and ‘in demand’, a higher eligibility criteria is set to cull-out the number of applicants that they need to process.

Sometime, colleges will not publish the higher cut-off numbers so as to avoid any controversy and also to sell more admission forms. Internally, they will just use the higher cut-off numbers as the first mode of elimination.

Bottom lines:

  1. BCI stipulates the minimum percentage of marks in the qualifying exam as not below 45% of the total marks in case of general category applicants and 40% of the total marks in case of SC and ST applicants.
  2. Depending on the demand, colleges can and do set higher eligibility criteria for admission.
  3. Scoring the minimum numbers may not automatically guarantee a seat in the institution.
  4. Check with the institute / college for clarification and if you are applying for very popular colleges, have a back-up plan.

Q : After 12th class, how can we join a BBA LLB course?

Ans :

Reusing my answer from a similar question . . .

  • The minimum academic eligibility for a 5 year LLB is 12th
  • The minimum academic eligibility for a 3 year LLB is a Graduation

Since LLB is a ‘Higher Degree’ of sorts, the requirement for a LLB is that the student should have another Bachelors degree. So the 5 year LLB (after +2) is a dual degree program – BA LLB / BBA LLB / BCom LLB etc.

The three year LLB needs the candidates to have a Bachelors degree (any Bachelors degree) before taking up the LLB.

In India, there are three ways to taking up an LLB course . . .

[1] Without any entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – There are many tier-3 and some tier-2 Law Colleges across India, where admission is done on a first-come-first-admitted basis.

No entrance exam. Just meet the minimum criteria in terms of your previous academics and pay the fees.

These are proper colleges, recognized by the Bar Council and have 3 year & 5 year LLB courses, affiliated to various Universities.

They normally will not have any placement process and the other facilities also are quite basic.

But, you will get a proper LLB degree after completing the course.

[2] With entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – there are tier 2 colleges that have their own entrance exam and in some states there is a common entrance exam for Law Courses across many participating colleges – tier 2 & 3.

For example, the Andhra Pradesh – AP LAWCET, Telangana – TS LAWCET, Kerala CEE , DU Law entrance exam etc.

Bulk of the seats are filled through the exams, but there will usually be a ‘Management quota’ of seats with higher fees in private colleges that participate in these common entrance process.

[3] Through CLAT (5 year only) – CLAT is the common entrance exam for the National Law Schools / National Law Universities across India.

These tier 1 institutes have placement process, superb facilities and the competition for getting admission is also quite tough.

Q : Between a 3 year LLB course or a 5 year BA LLB course, which one is better?

Ans :

5 year LLB – from one of the NLUs.

In India, you can do a 5 year LLB or a 3 year LLB.

The 5 year LLB is an integrated course, which is usually a BA / BBA / Bcom + LLB.

  • The NLUs offer only 5 year LLB programs
  • Various other Tier 1, 2 & 3 colleges offer 5 or 3 year programs

If you wish to pursue a corporate career and are keen on campus placements, the best place to study would be one of the top NLUs.

The newer / lower ranking NLUs and the other Tier 1 colleges may have campus placements; but the ‘top law firms’ usually go to the top NLUs, and the placement salary levels in these newer / lower ranked colleges may also be on the lower side.

However, some colleges (Tier 1/2/3) are a pool for mass recruitment by the LPO type of companies. Which are not a bad option; since can be a stepping stone for your career.

So, if placements are your primary criteria, aim for the top NLUs, else, look at the other NLUs / Tier 1 colleges and confirm on their placement process / track record before applying / joining.

Q : What is the eligibility for taking admission in NLUs after graduation for pursuing law?

Ans :

Get in through the CLAT . . .

CLAT is the common entrance exam for most of the National Law Schools / National Law Universities across India.

NLU Delhi and HPNLU Shimla do not participate in the CLAT as they have their own separate entrance exams, AILET & HPNLET respectively.

So, if you want to apply for all the NLUs, you should take three exams :

  1. CLAT
  2. AILET
  3. HPNLET

The CLAT alone is the Common Entrance Test for 18 NLU/NLS.

With regards to the eligibility for the CLAT; the basic criteria is :

  • No upper age limit for UG Programme in CLAT
  • As regards minimum percentage of marks in the qualifying examination (i.e., 10+2), the candidates must have secured:Forty five percent (45%) marks in case of candidates belonging to Unreserved/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) and other categories,andForty Percent (40%) marks in case of candidates belonging to Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe (SC/ST) categories.
  • The result of the qualifying examination (i.e., 10+2) shall be submitted by the candidate at the time of admission failing which the candidate shall be ineligible for admission to the Course.
  • Candidates who are appearing in the qualifying examination in March/April, are also eligible to appear in CLAT examination. However, they shall be required to produce an evidence of their passing the qualifying examination at the time of admission, failing which they shall lose their right to be considered for admission.
  • Candidates are ranked on a national level for each category of applicants. Each rank will have only one candidate. In case of two or more candidates scoring equal marks, the break of tie for awarding ranks shall be by the following procedure and order as under:[1] Higher marks in the component /section on legal aptitude in the CLAT exam;[2] Higher age;[3] Computerized draw of lots.

** The eligibility criteria is mostly similar for all the three exams. You should confirm the specific details for each exam through the official notification that will come out ahead of the exam every year.

Q : Is the CLAT a must for an LLB?

Ans :

Reusing my answer from another question . . .

In India, there are three ways to taking up an LLB course . . .

[1] Without any entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – There are many tier-3 and some tier-2 Law Colleges across India, where admission is done on a first-come-first-admitted basis.

No entrance exam. Just meet the minimum criteria in terms of your previous academics and pay the fees.

These are proper colleges, recognized by the Bar Council and have 3 year & 5 year LLB courses, affiliated to various Universities.

They normally will not have any placement process and the other facilities also are quite basic.

But, you will get a proper LLB degree after completing the course.

[2] With entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – there are tier 2 colleges that have their own entrance exam and in some states there is a common entrance exam for Law Courses across many participating colleges – tier 2 & 3.

For example, the Andhra Pradesh – AP LAWCET, Telangana – TS LAWCET, Kerala CEE , DU Law entrance exam etc.

Bulk of the seats are filled through the exams, but there will usually be a ‘Management quota’ of seats with higher fees in private colleges that participate in these common entrance process.

[3] Through CLAT (5 year only) – CLAT is the common entrance exam for the National Law Schools / National Law Universities across India.

These tier 1 institutes have placement process, superb facilities and the competition for getting admission is also quite tough.

Q : What is the difference between lawyer, advocate and a legal practitioner?

Ans :

Legal Practitioner

Anybody can be a ‘Legal Practitioner’. There are no formal qualifications or credentials required.

It is a generic term use to identify anybody who is engaged in any business / agency that is connected with the Legal systems or processes.

Legal Practitioners may have formal qualifications – such as LLB, CS, CA (E.g. CAs & CSs practicing Company Law)

Or even Typists & DTP experts who help create all those generic rent agreements and deeds can also call themselves ‘Legal Practitioners’ or ‘Legal Consultants’ – though they do not have any formal qualifications.

Lawyer

Anybody who formally studies Law; i.e. completes a Bar Council recognized LLB degree can call himself / herself a Lawyer.

A Lawyer need not practice law. I.e. A Lawyer may not be a legal practitioner.

A Lawyer can be engaged in any other business, employed in any company in any role or be doing absolutely anything totally unconnected with the Law – but he/she will still be a ‘Lawyer’ because of the LLB qualification.

Advocate

A Lawyer, who has cleared the Bar Exam and registered with the Bar Council as a Practicing Lawyer is an Advocate.

An Advocate can represent his / her clients before the Court of Law.

An Advocate can file and defend suits on behalf of the clients.

So . . .

  • All Advocates are Lawyers, but all Lawyers are not Advocates
  • All Advocates are Legal Practitioners, but all Legal Practitioners are not Advocates
  • A Lawyer will be a’Lawyer’ even without practicing Law

Q : Can I file a case against Realme in consumer court if my other phone got damaged due to their charger, which is hardly 10 days old?

Ans :

Not really.

There are not many details in your question, but I am trying to guess the situation.

If I understand your question correctly,

  • You bought a new ‘Realme’ phone
  • You used the charger that came with the ‘Realme’ phone to charge a different phone
  • For whatever reason, the other phone got damaged
  • You believe that your other phone got damaged because of the ‘Realme’ supplied charger
  • You want to file a complaint against ‘Realme’

Basically, if the charger was not a standalone unit that was sold by Realme as compatible with any device, you will not have much of a case.

A charger supplied along with a phone is supposed to be used with that phone alone. Though it may work with other phones; it is not officially recommended / approved by the manufacturers.

On the other hand, if you bought a ‘standalone’ Realme charger; was it advertised as ‘compatible with any phone’ ? Also, is it a genuine Realme charger?

(Amazon and Flipkart have some chargers which have ‘Realme’ in the description / title; but these phones are made by some other companies, just trying to cash in on the buzz around Realme brand name.)

If it is a genuine Realme charger and advertised as compatible with any phone, you may have some locus standi; however there will be some ’T & C / Operating specifications ’ in the charger’s documentation – which will say something like :

  • ‘Can be used with a device rated for ‘X’ MA or lower’ or
  • ‘Should not be used continuously for more than ‘X’ hours’ or
  • some ambient operating temperature / humidity / input voltage etc. will be mentioned.

Unless you can prove that you used the charger within all the specified operating parameters, you may again have not much to fight with.

Apart from the above things, if you read the T & C / Operating manual for your other phone, it will have some specifications like :

  • Use only these specific chargers with this phone
  • Use only chargers rated at ‘X’ amps with this phone
  • Use only approved original chargers with this phone
  • Using any unapproved charger may damage this phone

So, all these points can also be used to quash your claims.

Bottom-line : You will have a usable case if you used the charger within all the T & C and specifications stated for the charger and for your other phone

Q : Is there any coaching classes for LLM entrance in Kolkata?

Ans :

Reusing my answer from another similar question. This applicable for CLAT LLM and other LLM entrance exams.

You may not need coaching for the LLM entrance exam . . .

Coaching institutes are great; and they are very essential for exams where you have to deal with a lot of theory, which you may not be familiar with.

Coaching is also great for exams where there are analytical / mathematical / reasoning based questions – since a good coach should teach you how to approach them and solve them in the fastest possible way.

So, coaching may be a good idea for CLAT / DU LLB / AILET etc. But personally, I feel coaching is not required for CLAT-PG / DU LLM / AILET PG and other LLM entrance exams.

Why ?

LLM entrance exams are based on the LLB syllabus and you are already familiar with the subjects. You don’t need to be explained how the Constitution came into being or what different schools of Jurisprudence are etc.

What you do need is to know the answer to the questions.

First look at the typical syllabus . . .

“ The LL.M. Entrance Test Paper shall contain 100 Questions relating to: Constitutional Law of India, Law of Contracts, Sale of goods, Family Law, Criminal Law, Intellectual Property Rights, Cyber Law, Jurisprudence, Law of Torts, Consumer Protection Act, Public International Law, Company Law and Partnership.”

The syllabus therefore essentially covers all the important topics from the LLB course.

So how do we know what should we focus on and what are the important questions ?

Well,

  • analyse previous years papers,
  • analyse important questions from other similar exams,

and you can arrive at a fairly accurate picture of what to expect.

As I have been saying, the best way to prepare for any MCQ – objective questions based exam is to just keep practicing . . . practicing and practicing; till you can identify the correct answer for the question – even if you are not completely sure about why it is the correct answer.

Also, there are many questions which don’t need any ‘explanation’ or understanding, since they are fact based.

For example, if a question asks “Which article of the Indian constitution refers to ‘freedom of speech and expression’?”; you just need to know that it is Article 19. There is no explanation required.

Similarly, if the question is twisted around and asks “Article 19 of the constitution of India refers to which of the following?” ; you need to be able to identify the correct answer; there is no explanation!

A bulk of the questions in the LLM exam are in the above pattern… “Who said …… “, “The section ……… of the …….. act says what?” etc.

So, if you solve all the previous question papers + solve important questions from other exams AND keep solving them till you get most of the answers correct, you will do exceptionally well in the LLM entrance exams.

Same questions, Similar questions . . .

If you analyse the previous question papers, you will see that a bulk of the questions are repeated, derivations or similar to previous questions. So, practicing as many previous papers as possible is recommended.

Also, practice as many mock tests as possible, which have relevant questions.

For example, though the Constitution of India may have 448 articles, 95% of the questions in most exams refer to only around 50 ~ 60 articles, so the mock tests should have questions around these relevant articles, which makes your preparation more effective.

Bottom-line : Coaching is essential for ‘Knowledge biased’ exams which have Analytical, Quant based and other Aptitude oriented questions.

LLM entrance exams – including the CLAT PG are ‘memory biased’. What you need to clear these is practice and more practice.

Q : Is there any coaching classes for CLAT LLM in Kolkata?

Ans :

Reusing my answer from another similar question. This applicable for CLAT LLM and other LLM entrance exams.

You may not need coaching for the LLM entrance exam . . .

Coaching institutes are great; and they are very essential for exams where you have to deal with a lot of theory, which you may not be familiar with.

Coaching is also great for exams where there are analytical / mathematical / reasoning based questions – since a good coach should teach you how to approach them and solve them in the fastest possible way.

So, coaching may be a good idea for CLAT / DU LLB / AILET etc. But personally, I feel coaching is not required for CLAT-PG / DU LLM / AILET PG and other LLM entrance exams.

Why ?

LLM entrance exams are based on the LLB syllabus and you are already familiar with the subjects. You don’t need to be explained how the Constitution came into being or what different schools of Jurisprudence are etc.

What you do need is to know the answer to the questions.

First look at the typical syllabus . . .

“ The LL.M. Entrance Test Paper shall contain 100 Questions relating to: Constitutional Law of India, Law of Contracts, Sale of goods, Family Law, Criminal Law, Intellectual Property Rights, Cyber Law, Jurisprudence, Law of Torts, Consumer Protection Act, Public International Law, Company Law and Partnership.”

The syllabus therefore essentially covers all the important topics from the LLB course.

So how do we know what should we focus on and what are the important questions ?

Well,

  • analyse previous years papers,
  • analyse important questions from other similar exams,

and you can arrive at a fairly accurate picture of what to expect.

As I have been saying, the best way to prepare for any MCQ – objective questions based exam is to just keep practicing . . . practicing and practicing; till you can identify the correct answer for the question – even if you are not completely sure about why it is the correct answer.

Also, there are many questions which don’t need any ‘explanation’ or understanding, since they are fact based.

For example, if a question asks “Which article of the Indian constitution refers to ‘freedom of speech and expression’?”; you just need to know that it is Article 19. There is no explanation required.

Similarly, if the question is twisted around and asks “Article 19 of the constitution of India refers to which of the following?” ; you need to be able to identify the correct answer; there is no explanation!

A bulk of the questions in the LLM exam are in the above pattern… “Who said …… “, “The section ……… of the …….. act says what?” etc.

So, if you solve all the previous question papers + solve important questions from other exams AND keep solving them till you get most of the answers correct, you will do exceptionally well in the LLM entrance exams.

Same questions, Similar questions . . .

If you analyse the previous question papers, you will see that a bulk of the questions are repeated, derivations or similar to previous questions. So, practicing as many previous papers as possible is recommended.

Also, practice as many mock tests as possible, which have relevant questions.

For example, though the Constitution of India may have 448 articles, 95% of the questions in most exams refer to only around 50 ~ 60 articles, so the mock tests should have questions around these relevant articles, which makes your preparation more effective.

Bottom-line : Coaching is essential for ‘Knowledge biased’ exams which have Analytical, Quant based and other Aptitude oriented questions.

LLM entrance exams – including the CLAT PG are ‘memory biased’. What you need to clear these is practice and more practice.

Q : What is the eligibility for taking admission in NLUs after graduation for pursuing law?

Ans :

Get in through the CLAT . . .

CLAT is the common entrance exam for most of the National Law Schools / National Law Universities across India.

NLU Delhi and HPNLU Shimla do not participate in the CLAT as they have their own separate entrance exams, AILET & HPNLET respectively.

So, if you want to apply for all the NLUs, you should take three exams :

  1. CLAT
  2. AILET
  3. HPNLET

The CLAT alone is the Common Entrance Test for 18 NLU/NLS.

With regards to the eligibility for the CLAT; the basic criteria is :

  • No upper age limit for UG Programme in CLAT
  • As regards minimum percentage of marks in the qualifying examination (i.e., 10+2), the candidates must have secured:Forty five percent (45%) marks in case of candidates belonging to Unreserved/OBC/Specially Abled Persons (SAP) and other categories,andForty Percent (40%) marks in case of candidates belonging to Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe (SC/ST) categories.
  • The result of the qualifying examination (i.e., 10+2) shall be submitted by the candidate at the time of admission failing which the candidate shall be ineligible for admission to the Course.
  • Candidates who are appearing in the qualifying examination in March/April, are also eligible to appear in CLAT examination. However, they shall be required to produce an evidence of their passing the qualifying examination at the time of admission, failing which they shall lose their right to be considered for admission.
  • Candidates are ranked on a national level for each category of applicants. Each rank will have only one candidate. In case of two or more candidates scoring equal marks, the break of tie for awarding ranks shall be by the following procedure and order as under:[1] Higher marks in the component /section on legal aptitude in the CLAT exam;[2] Higher age;[3] Computerized draw of lots.

** The eligibility criteria is mostly similar for all the three exams. You should confirm the specific details for each exam through the official notification that will come out ahead of the exam every year.

Q : How do I practice law in Delhi after completing an L.L.B from a different state board?

Ans :

Register with the Delhi Bar Council . . .

If you are registering with a Bar council for the first time :

To register as an Advocate with the Delhi Bar Council, you should be an LLB graduate from any Bar Council recognized college anywhere in India.

There is no need for you to have studied in Delhi NCR.

However, you need to have a valid Proof of Residence of Delhi or NCR at the time of registration.

You should also meet the other criteria, such as not being engaged in any other employment or profession.

Once you are enrolled, you can practice in Delhi.

If you have already enrolled in any State Bar Council in India :

You need submit a ‘Enrollment Transfer request’ in the Delhi Bar Council in the appropriate form.

The DBC will thereafter seek the approval from the previous Bar Council and if there are no objections, the previous Bar Council will send all the documents to the Delhi Bar Council after which you can proceed with the enrollment in Delhi.

Any any given point in time, you can be enrolled in one State Bar Council.

Reach out to the Delhi Bar council office for details of the process + forms + fees + timelines

Q : Do you know any lawrule which is irrelevant now but still exist in India?

Ans :

There are / were plenty . . .

In Dec 2017, there was a news report that 1800+ archaic laws have been identified as redundant or irrelevant and were on the way to being scrapped.

As many as 1200 from that list were scrapped at that time.

I guess some Googling should help in finding that list of 1800 identified / the scrapped 1200 laws.

Previously, the Center for Civil Society had also published a list of 101 laws which were identified as being outdated / irrelevant / superseded etc. (Included below in this post)

I believe this list of 100 is part of the over 1800+ master list and many of them should have been scrapped.

Center for Civil Society’s list of 101 :

  1. The Forfeited Deposits Act (1850)
  2. The Sheriffs’ Fees Act (1852)
  3. The Sonthal Parganas Act (1855)
  4. The Howrah Offences Act (1857)
  5. Oriental Gas Company Act (1857)
  6. The Waste-Lands (Claims) Act (1863)
  7. The Converts’ Marriage Dissolution Act (1866)
  8. The Oudh Sub-Settlement Act (1867)
  9. The Oudh Estates Act (1869)
  10. The Oudh Taluqdars’ Relief Act (1870)
  11. The Foreign Recruiting Act (1874)
  12. The Laws Local Extent Act (1874)
  13. The Oudh Laws Act (1876)
  14. The Hackney-Carriage Act (1879)
  15. The Elephants Preservation Act (1879)
  16. The Fort William Act (1881)
  17. The Oudh Wasikas Act (1886)
  18. Reformatory Schools Act (1897)
  19. The Wild Birds and Animals (Protection) Act (1912)
  20. Emergency Legislation Continuance Act (1915)
  21. The Sheriff of Calcutta (Power of Custody) Act (1931)
  22. Bengal Supression of Terrorist Outrages (Supplementary) Act (1932)
  23. The Assam Criminal Law Amendment (Supplementary) Act (1934)
  24. The Bangalore Marriages Validating Act (1934)
  25. The Arya Marriages Validation Act (1937)
  26. Trading with the Enemy (Continuance of Emergency Powers) Act (1947)
  27. Exchange of Prisoners Act (1948)
  28. Imperial Library (Change of Name) Act (1948)
  29. The Resettlement of Displaced Persons (Land Acquisition) Act (1948)
  30. Indian Independence Pakistan Courts (Pending Proceedings) Act (1952)
  31. The Chandernagore (Merger) Act (1954)
  32. The Ganges Tolls Act (1867)
  33. Salt Cess Act (1953)
  34. Wealth Tax Act (1957)
  35. Tobacco Cess Act (1975)
  36. Sugar Cess Act (1953)
  37. The Jute Manufactures Cess Act (1983)
  38. The Research and Development Cess Act (1986)
  39. Railways Companies (Emergency Provisions) Act (1951)
  40. The Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act (1971)
  41. The Indian Copper Corporation (Acquisition of Undertaking) Act (1972)
  42. Richardson and Cruddas Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1972)
  43. The Esso (Acquisition of Undertakings In India) Act (1974)
  44. The Indian Iron and Steel Company (Acquisition of Shares) Act (1976)
  45. Burn Company and Indian Standard Wagon Company (Nationalisation) Act (1976)
  46. The Burmah Shell (Acquisition of Undertakings in India) Act (1976)
  47. Braithwaite and Company (India) Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1976)
  48. Smith Stanistreet and Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1977)
  49. Caltex (Acquisition of Shares of Caltex Oil Refining (India) Limited and of the Undertakings in India of Caltex (India) Limited) Act (1977)
  50. Britannia Engineering Company Limited (Mokameh Unit) and the Arthur Butler and Company (Muzaffarpore) Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1978)
  51. Hindustan Tractors Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1978)
  52. Kosan Gas Company (Acquisition of Undertaking) Act (1979
  53. Jute Companies (Nationalisation) Act (1980)
  54. Amritsar Oil Works (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1982)
  55. Hooghly Docking and Engineering Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1984)
  56. Inchek Tyres Limited and National Rubber Manufacturers Limited (Nationalisation) Act (1984)
  57. Futwah Islampur Light Railway Line (Nationalisation) Act (1985)
  58. Swadeshi Cotton Mills Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act (1986)
  59. Children (Pledging of Labour) Act (1933)
  60. Weekly Holidays Act (1942)
  61. Mica Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act (1946)
  62. Limestone and Dolomite Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act (1972)
  63. Iron Ore Mines/ Manganese Ore Mines and Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Cess Act (1976)
  64. Iron Ore Mines/ Manganese Ore Mines and Crome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act (1976)
  65. Beedi Workers Labour Welfare Cess Act (1976)
  66. Beedi Workers Labour Welfare Fund Act (1976)
  67. Cine-workers Labour Welfare Cess Act (1976)
  68. Cine-workers Labour Welfare Fund Act (1981)
  69. The Sarais Act (1867)
  70. Indian Boilers Act (1923)
  71. The Delhi Hotels (Control of Accommodation) Act (1949)
  72. Telegraph Wires (Unlawful Possession) Act (1950)
  73. Prize Competitions Act (1955)
  74. Sugar Export Promotion Act (1958)
  75. The Delhi Rent Control Act (1958)
  76. Delhi Land Holdings (Ceiling) Act (1960)
  77. The Sugar (Regulation of Production) Act (1961)
  78. East Punjab Urban Rent Restriction (Extension to Chandigarh) Act (1974)
  79. The Levy Sugar Price Equalisation Fund Act (1976)
  80. Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout Design Act (2000)
  81. Dekkhans Agriculturists’ Relief Act (1879)
  82. The Legal Practitioners Act (1879)
  83. Police (Incitement to Disaffection) Act (1922)
  84. Public Suits Validation Act (1932)
  85. The Registration of Foreigners Act (1939)
  86. The Drugs (Control) Act (1950)
  87. The Companies (Donation to National Funds) Act (1951)
  88. The Requisitioning and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act (1952)
  89. Public Wakfs Extension of Limitation Act (1959)
  90. Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act (1974)
  91. Indian Law Reports Act (1975)
  92. The Departmentalisation of Union Accounts (Transfer of Personnel) Act (1976)
  93. The Disputed Elections (Prime Minister and Speaker) Act (1977)
  94. Illegal Immigrants (Determination by Tribunals) Act (1983)
  95. Punjab Disturbed Areas Act (1983)
  96. Chandigarh Disturbed Areas Act (1983)
  97. Shipping Development Fund Committee (Abolition) Act (1986)
  98. Dramatic Performances Act (1876)
  99. The Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act (1911)
  100. Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act (1956)
  101. The Newspaper (Price and Page) Act (1956)

Q : Is LLB after commerce possible or not?

Ans :

Yes.

  • The minimum academic eligibility for a 5 year LLB is 12th (a.k.a +2)
  • The minimum academic eligibility for a 3 year LLB is a Graduation

Since LLB in India is a ‘Higher Bachelor’s Degree’ of sorts, the requirement is that the student should have another Bachelors degree before taking up Law. So the 5 year LLB (after +2) is a dual degree program – BA LLB / BBA LLB / BCom LLB etc.

The three year LLB needs the candidates to have a Bachelors degree (any Bachelors degree) before taking up the LLB.

There are plenty of people who take up LLB after BA / BSc / BCom etc.

Is there an advantage in LLB by graduating in any specific field ?

No.

BA / BSc / BCom / BTech / BE / MBBS – nothing that you have studied earlier will give you a significant edge over others in your LLB; because 85 ~ 90% of the subjects are new.

(If you have studied Company Law, Banking Law, HR Law, Labour Law or Taxation in your graduation – like in BCom, you will have to read less for those specific subjects; else everyone is in the same boat. Even if you have studied these subjects earlier, the approach will be somewhat different in LLB, so you will essentially have to read them again.)

Irrespective of your graduation stream, you will find LLB easy to sail through if you have the following attributes :

  • Clarity in approach – why am I doing LLB ? Is my objective to simply pass ? or am I trying to score high grades ? – the rest of your approach will depend on the answers to these questions
  • Patience to study long and mostly boring Law books.
  • Pragmatic approach and understanding that it is practically impossible to study and remember everything – so learn to let go of a few things
  • Patience to write long assignments and submissions
  • Patience to keep your eyes awake in class 😉
  • Patience to fill pages in the exam paper – even if you can answer a question in 1/4th of a page, you may have to fill in 2 pages to score enough to pass

In India, there are three ways to taking up an LLB course . . .

[1] Without any entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – There are many tier-3 and some tier-2 Law Colleges across India, where admission is done on a first-come-first-admitted basis.

No entrance exam. Just meet the minimum criteria in terms of your previous academics and pay the fees.

These are proper colleges, recognized by the Bar Council and have 3 year & 5 year LLB courses, affiliated to various Universities.

They normally will not have any placement process and the other facilities also may be quite basic.

But, you will get a proper LLB degree after completing the course.

[2] With entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – there are tier 2 colleges that have their own entrance exam and in some states there is a common entrance exam for Law Courses across many participating colleges – tier 2 & 3.

For example, the Andhra Pradesh – AP LAWCET, Telangana – TS LAWCET, Kerala CEE , DU Law entrance exam etc.

Bulk of the seats are filled through the exams, but there will usually be a ‘Management quota’ of seats with higher fees in private colleges that participate in these common entrance process.

Some of the private Law Schools will also accept LSAT / CLAT scores for admission.

[3] Through CLAT (5 year only) – CLAT is the common entrance exam for the National Law Schools / National Law Universities across India.

These tier 1 institutes have placement process, superb facilities and the competition for getting admission is also quite tough.

Since this is a standardized exam, there are other Law Colleges (apart from the NLU/NLS) which also use the CLAT scores for admissions.

Q : Is the entrance exam compulsory for admission in LLB for 5 years?

Ans :

Reusing my answer from similar questions . . . This answer is valid for both 3 year and 5 year LLBs.

Is entrance exam a must ?

If you were to classify Law Colleges into Tiers 1, 2 and 3; the Tier 1 & most Tier 2 colleges have more applicants than seats – so they compulsorily have an entrance exam as a filtration mechanism.

However, if you are ok with doing your LLB from a Tier 3 college, admission is a simpler process. As simple as walk-in and pay the fees. (Subject to meeting the minimum eligibility criteria.)

If you wish to pursue a Corporate career and wish to have a holistic experience of studying law, a 5 year LLB from a Tier 1 college (NLU/NLS) is the best option.

If you wish to practice as an advocate and your aim is to get a valid BCI recognized LLB, any college is fine.

In India, there are three ways to taking up an LLB course . . .

[1] Without any entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – There are many tier-3 and some tier-2 Law Colleges across India, where admission is done on a first-come-first-admitted basis.

No entrance exam. Just meet the minimum criteria in terms of your previous academics and pay the fees.

These are proper colleges, recognized by the Bar Council and have 3 year & 5 year LLB courses, affiliated to various Universities.

They normally will not have any placement process and the other facilities also are quite basic.

But, you will get a proper LLB degree after completing the course.

[2] With entrance exam (3 year / 5 year) – there are tier 2 colleges that have their own entrance exam and in some states there is a common entrance exam for Law Courses across many participating colleges – tier 2 & 3.

For example, the Andhra Pradesh – AP LAWCET, Telangana – TS LAWCET, Kerala CEE , DU Law entrance exam etc.

Bulk of the seats are filled through the exams, but there will usually be a ‘Management quota’ of seats with higher fees in private colleges that participate in these common entrance process.

[3] Through CLAT (5 year only) – CLAT is the common entrance exam for the National Law Schools / National Law Universities across India.

These tier 1 institutes have placement process, superb facilities and the competition for getting admission is also quite tough.

Q : Can I do the LLB from home?

Ans :

No.

By ‘LLB from Home’, I believe you are referring to a Distance / Correspondence LLB.

Unfortunately, the BCI (Bar Council of India) does not recognize a distance LLB.

So, even if you do complete a Distance / Correspondence LLB, you will not be able to use the qualification for practicing as an Advocate or applying for Judicial Services and other post LLB exams.

My answer is adapted from some of my previous answers . . .

A Google search will show several Institutions in India offering a distance education ‘Bachelors degree in law’, usually a BL / BBL etc.

There are also some which offer an LLB! Like AUDDE (Annamalai University Directorate of Distance education)

But, The Bar Council of India does not recognize any distance or Correspondence LLB programs for practicing as an Advocate.

Why BCI does not recognize distance LLB for practicing as an Advocate?

LLB is a ‘professional’ degree that allows graduates to practice independently after graduation.

By design, the curricula of all ‘Professional’ degrees have a theoretical aspect + a practical and/or an experiential component.

The practical and experiential aspects cover the application of the theory in real world situations.

For LLB, there are moot courts, class discussions & debates, viva exams, practical exercises in drafting & pleading, court visits to observe and document proceedings; and all such practical aspects may not be possible in a distance education model.

Hence, the Bar Council of India mandates that all LLB (BCI recognized) courses in India should be conducted in a full-time mode only.

So, while you may complete a distance learning degree, it will not be enough to make you eligible to actually practice as an advocate.

Even for other exams where an LLB is a base requirement, a BCI recognized degree is usually a prerequisite.

A distance LLB might be useful as a way to enhance your learning or add extra qualifications to your resume; but you will need a full-time LLB from a BCI recognized college / university to actually practice as a Advocate.

Also, before you enroll, do ensure that the degree is at least UGC recognized.

Q : When will the next All India Bar Exam be held?

Ans :

Twice in a year.

The Indian Bar Exam; i.e. the AIBE – All India Bar Exam is now typically held twice in a year.

If the regular schedule is followed, it is held in June and in December of every year.

However, there can be some variations and it can get pushed out by a couple of weeks.

The announcement for the exam comes out at around two months ahead of the exam on the Bar Council website and the dedicated AIBE website.

Check the official announcements for the current process and the application last dates for the specific exam.

At this time, there is no upper age limit or any limit in terms of the number of attempts for the AIBE.

It is a multiple choice – objective exam, in a ‘open book’ format; with 40% as the passing mark.

No specific scores / rankings are mentioned in the results – you just get a ‘pass’ or ‘fail’.

Q : What is the way to do distance education in an LLB?

Ans :

My answer is adapted from some of my previous answers . . .

A Google search will show several Institutions in India offering a distance education ‘Bachelors degree in law’, usually a BL / BBL etc. But there are also some which offer an LLB! Like AUDDE (Annamalai University Directorate of Distance education)

But, The Bar Council of India does not recognize any distance LLB programs for practicing as an Advocate.

Why BCI does not recognize distance LLB for practicing as an Advocate?

LLB is a ‘professional’ degree that allows graduates to practice independently after graduation.

By design, the curricula of all ‘Professional’ degrees have a theoretical aspect + a practical and/or an experiential component.

The practical and experiential aspects cover the application of the theory in real world situations.

For LLB, there are moot courts, class discussions & debates, viva exams, practical exercises in drafting & pleading, court visits to observe and document proceedings; and all such practical aspects may not be possible in a distance education model.

Hence, the Bar Council of India mandates that all LLB (BCI recognized) courses in India should be conducted in a full-time mode only.

So, while you may complete a distance learning degree, it will not be enough to make you eligible to actually practice as an advocate.

Even for other exams where an LLB is a base requirement, a BCI recognized degree is usually a prerequisite.

A distance LLB might be useful as a way to enhance your learning or add extra qualifications to your resume; but you will need a full-time LLB from a BCI recognized college / university to actually practice as a Advocate.

Also, before you enroll, do ensure that the degree is at least UGC recognized.

Q : Is it advisable to give my CA paper directly after completing 3 years of an integrated 5-year B.com LLB degree without taking the foundation level?

Ans :

AFAIK . . .

Graduates, Post Graduates and students having an equivalent degree are exempted from the CA Foundation exams. (Subject to meeting the minimum marks criteria)

Commerce graduates with at least 55% marks and other graduates with at least 60% marks can seek direct admission to the CA Intermediate level.

Since you will be covering the CA Foundation level subjects to a large extent in your B Com course, I don’t see any major value add in going through the foundation level after completing your B Com.

However, if your graduation marks are less than 55%, you may be mandatorily required to clear Foundation before taking up Intermediate.

** Check the latest CA rules & reconfirm the above notes.**

Since the B Com LLB course may be relatively hectic (especially if you are aiming at high scores), I would suggest focusing on your LLB first and then taking up CA.

Also,

Do consider if taking up CA after completing LLB adds value from your career goals & aspirations perspective.

Since both CA & LLB are professional courses, if you wish to practice in either field, you will have to spend some time in gaining practical experience and establishing your practice; so take a call on whether taking up CA (which will again require a certain degree of focused study) after LLB fits your goals or should you focus on establishing yourself.

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